Taekwon-do is composed of fundamental movements, patterns, dallyon, sparring and self-defence techniques that are so closely related that it is impossible to segregate one phase of instruction from another

Fundamental movements are necessary for sparring and patterns while both patterns and sparring are indispensable for the perfection of fundamental movements.


In the illustration, one can see it is difficult to distinguish the beginning of the cycle from the end. There is, in fact, like the deity, no beginning or end. A student will find that he/she will have to return time and time again to the beginning fundamental movements to perfect his/her advanced sparring and self defence techniques.


Each fundamental movement, in most cases represents attack or defence against a particular target area or definite action of an imaginary opponent or opponents. It is necessary to learn as many fundamental movements as possible and fit them into complete proficiency so the student can meet any situation in actual combat with confidence. The pattern actually places the student in a hypothetical situation where he/she must avail him/herself to defence, counter-attack, and attack motions against several opponents.

Through constant practice of these patterns, the attack and defence become a conditioned reflex movement. Power and accuracy must be developed to such a high degree that only one single blow is needed to stop an opponent, so the student can shift stance and block or attack another opponent. Each pattern is different from the other in order to develop reaction against changing circumstances.

Once the basic patterns are mastered, the student then begins to physically apply the skill obtained from fundamental movements and patterns to sparring against actual moving opponents.


Collaterally with sparring, the student must begin to develop the body and toughen his/her attacking and blocking tools so he/she is able to deliver maximum power in actual combat. Once a student has applied him/herself to fundamental movements, patterns, sparring, and dallyon, then the time has arrived for the student to test his/her coordination, speed, balance, and concentration against spontaneous attacks; i.e., self-defence. The student will constantly find him/herself returning, however, to  fundamental movements even when he/she has achieved the highest possible degree of proficiency in self-defence techniques. As in military training. Taekwon-do progression follows a certain parallel.


Composition Of Taekwon-do